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La pollona negra y su lugar en la evolución

Éste es un post para la convocatoria #lunespollas

Las pollonas negras suelen medir entre 30 y 38 centímetros, y pueden llegar a pesar medio kilo. Su distribución por el globo terráqueo es amplísima; encontramos pollonas negras en Zimbaue, en España, en Brasil, en los Estados Unidos, en Madagascar, en Rusia, en la India, en Japón... Sí, en Japón también.

Las pollonas negras son mucho más comunes de lo que piensas, créeme. Y, contra lo que podría suponerse, muy poca gente ha reconocido una cuando la ha visto, ni le ha provocado impresión alguna. El mito de que una pollona negra "te cambia la vida" no parece ser cierto, y más bien lo que suelen provocar, sin duda injustamente, es indiferencia.

La pollona negra (Gallinula chloropus) se conoce también como gallineta común o como polla de agua. ¿Cuál es su lugar en el árbol evolutivo? Recientemente se ha publicado en la prestigiosa revista Science una comparación de los genomas de 48 aves representativas de la mayoría de los grupos vivos. Como resultado, tenemos probablemente la filogenia de aves actuales más exacta hasta la fecha.

La polla de agua no está estrechamente emparentada con la gallina. Pertenece al orden de las gruiformes, es decir, es pariente cercana de las grullas. Según el citado estudio, las aves gruiformes serían primas hermanas del grupo de los chorlitos y las avefrías. El siguiente ave en parentesco sería el fascinante hoatzin, cuyos pollos pueden usar las manos, provistas de garras, para agarrarse y trepar por las ramas de los árboles. El siguiente conjunto de parientes próximos contiene a una gran cantidad de aves diversas, desde pingüinos hasta búhos o gorriones, pero no a las gallinas ni a los patos, y tampoco a las avestruces. Podríamos decir que, por orden de ramificación, la pollona negra está en una rama situada "aburridamente" a media altura en el árbol de las aves.

Como todas las aves, antiguas y modernas, la pollona negra es un dinosaurio. Posee los rasgos típicos de dinosaurios terópodo como son el bipedismo, los huesos huecos, un sistema respiratorio avanzado basado en sacos aéreos, y las plumas. El análisis de genomas aviares ha permitido calcular** en cuántas ocasiones se perdieron los dientes en los linajes de aves actuales: parece que solo fue necesaria una vez, hace unos 116 millones de años. Sin embargo, aún está por resolver cuántas veces perdieron el pene, ya que los machos de la inmensa mayoría de aves carecen de él. Efectivamente, la pollona negra tampoco tiene pene. Sus ancestros fueron despollados por la evolución.



Gallinula chloropus.


*Zhang, G., C. Li, Q. Li, B. Li, D. M. Larkin, C. Lee, J. F. Storz, ...F. G. Hoffmann, J. C. Opazo,...et al. (members of the avian genome consortium). 2014. Comparative genomics reveals insights into avian genome evolution and adaptation. Science 346: 1311-1320. PDF

**Meredith, RW, Zhang, G, Gilbert, MTP, Jarvis, ED & Springer, MS 2014, 'Evidence for a single loss of mineralized teeth in the common avian ancestor' Science, vol 346, no. 6215, 1254390., 10.1126/science.1254390

2015-01-19 | Haz un comentario (hay 134)


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Comentarios

1
De: krollspell Fecha: 2015-01-19 12:56

Lo cierto es que la foto es la polla.



2
De: Alopecio Fecha: 2015-01-19 20:05

Eh o no? El krollspell, como las suelta



3
De: D.E.L Fecha: 2015-01-19 22:45

"Efectivamente, la pollona negra tampoco tiene pene. Sus ancestros fueron despollados por la evolución."
... Es seguramente una de las frases más hilarantes que he visto en este blog sin estar en un comentárido.



4
De: Guadalupe Martinez Fecha: 2015-01-19 23:53

yo considero que la espoecie de la pollona negra se encuentra distribuida en varios paises de todo el mundo y es poco conocida en mi pais México y por el nombre se piensa que es una gallina pero realmente es una mescla de muchos animales



5
De: Flor Larrogoitia Fecha: 2015-01-20 00:11

es una especie que se encuentra en gran proporción en paises como España, Brasil, Estados Unidos y Madagascary poco nonocida en nuestro pais y es pariente cercano de las grullas y sus garras sirven para trasladarse y sujetarse.



6
De: El PaleoFreak Fecha: 2015-01-20 11:31

D.E.L., gracias por leer hasta ahí :oD



7
De: ESTHER ESTRADA GERONIMO Fecha: 2015-01-21 03:33

efectivamente es Muy poco conocida en mi pais México y por el nombre se piensa que es una gallina pero realmente es una mescla de muchos especies..



8
De: Gualtrapatherion Fecha: 2015-01-24 08:59

¡Por todos los chochines!, auguro un aumento exponencial de las visitas a este blog por parte de gentes en principio poco afines a la ornitología.
La polla ha perdido a muchos de sus primos, Gruiformes como se entendía antaño ha sido desmantelado, con Cariamiforme, Otidiformes, kagúes y mesitas cada uno en una rama diferente y muy alejada de pollas y grullas (que por lo menos parece que siguen juntas), parece un culebrón.
El nuevo árbol filogenético publicado en Science parece, por fin, que tiene visos de dejar sentadas de una vez las relaciones de parentesco entre los grandes clados aviares, comparar directamente el genoma completo de 48 representantes de los linajes mayores debería ser definitivo. Hasta ahora, las filogenias basadas en unos pocos genes sólo coincidían en las ramificaciones más basales (Ratites y Galloanserae). Otra cosa es cuándo se hará lo mismo con las relaciones dentro de cada uno de esos clados, pero para eso habría que comparar los genomas de 10.000 especies, habrá que esperar a que inventen ordenadores cuánticos.
Hace ya varios años que se publicaron filogenias que coincidían en parte con la que vemos ahora, y que a los acostumbrados desde críos a la taxonomía linneana nos chocaban mucho, creo que ya nos hemos acostumbrado a ver a halcones y accipítridos muy separados, o a somormujos y flamencos formando un clado, pero, joer ¡avutardas y turacos como linajes hermanos, unidos a los cucos, y cerca de chotacabras y vencejos!, si encima tenemos en cuenta que la mayoría de las divisiones se produjeron pocos millones de años después del K-T, el poder de la evolución es realmente impresionante.
En cuanto a los penes, las únicas aves que presentan una estructura digna de tal nombre son las ratites y las Galloanserae, precisamente las de escisión más basal, y además la eracción se produce no por flujo de sangre a la estructura, como en los mamíferos, sino por flujo de linfa, exactamente igual que en los crocodilianos, lo que concuerda muy bien con una condición general arcosauriana perdida en las Neoaves.



9
De: Jesus Viera Fecha: 2015-01-29 01:23

Es increible como cada dia uno va descubriendo especies en este mundo que pertenecieron aun despues de lo que hacemos llamar pangea la semejanza con muchos animales que hoy endia existen es increible es cierto que en mexico no es muy conocida esta polla negra pero aun a si uno puede ir descubriendo mas especies gracias a los descubrimientos que en dia se han echo y que pueden ayudarnos ampliar nuestros conosimientos encuanto al biologia animal



10
De: Paquicéfala Fecha: 2015-02-02 08:39

¡Oh, pobre polla despollada!
Se merece al menos un arcano ripio:

"Las muchachas de mi pueblo
ya no salen en piragua,
porque dicen que en la orilla
han visto una polla de agua."

Muy interesante artículo, por cierto. :)



11
De: doblador Fecha: 2015-02-02 12:16

Hola, soy nuevo y no me ubico muxo en esto de los blogs, queria saber si alguien sabe como construir una dobladora d etubos(pipe bender), vi que un integrante del foro tenia una antigua, me gustatia saber si puede compartir las dimensiones(un planito), lo d ela bomba se cambia por una gata hidraulica y listo.

Grasias de hantebraso y muy buen blogs



12
De: SolraK Fecha: 2015-02-02 15:07

Entonces, ¿Como nos imaginamos el miembro viril de un T.rex?



13
De: Gualtrapatherion Fecha: 2015-02-03 11:12

Pues es bastante plausible que fuese una estructura formada a partir de evaginaciones pericloacales, eréctil mediante llenado linfático, como en anseriformes, ratites y crocodilianos. eso sí, si su tamaño era proporcional al del animal, y era una estructura homóloga con el pene de las anátidas..., lo de Rocco Sigfredi sería una miserable cerilla a su lado

http://scienceblogs.com/tetrapodzoology/2009/07/21/duck-humps-dog/



14
De: dieta Fecha: 2015-02-03 11:31

Hola soy fan de la dieta paleo y me gustaría saber dónde está la sección de recetas. Muy buena esta sección de humor

Saludos y arriba la dieta paleo!



15
De: El PaleoFreak Fecha: 2015-02-04 00:23

Je, je. :o)



16
De: Gualtrapatherion Fecha: 2015-02-04 11:51

Las kokotxas de Tiktaalik al ajoarriero son mis favoritas, sin menospreciar los jarretes de Kannemeyeria a las finas cicadales.



17
De: JJ Fecha: 2015-02-05 18:58

¿Los pterosaurios cuidaban a sus crias hasta que pudiesen volar, o nacian capaces de volar e independientes como otros reptiles??



18
De: velocirrapta Fecha: 2015-02-07 22:38

he leido por ahí que al igual que en las aves actuales había dos tipos,nidifugas y nidicolas, según su desarrollo en el momento de salir del huevo. Se conoce por el grado de desarrollo de los embriones fósiles de diversas especies



19
De: velocirrapta Fecha: 2015-02-07 22:38

corregidme si me equivoco



20
De: JJ Fecha: 2015-02-08 20:26

Ranforrincos nidifugos y pterosaurios nidicolas??



21
De: Anónimo Fecha: 2015-02-10 21:43

Tantos años preguntándonos con Georgie Dann "qué será lo que tiene el negro", y resulta que lo que tenía era esto: una gallineta común.



22
De: Anónimo Fecha: 2015-03-10 23:09

También está el pollón azul, Porphyrio porphyrio, y el gran pollón azul o Takahe.



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