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ADN basura: negacionismo y malentendidos (con cebolla)

Un artículo en dos partes, publicado (como colaborador de Naukas) en el Cuaderno de Cultura Científica


Primera parte
Segunda parte

El concepto ADN basura lleva muchos años divulgándose y enseñándose como si se tratase de un error surgido directamente de la arrogancia de los científicos. Un error que ahora, gracias a nuevos hallazgos y a un cambio de mentalidad, se estaría corrigiendo.

El mito dice así: Cuando los científicos empezaron a leer el genoma humano comprobaron que solo una minúscula parte consiste en ADN codificante, es decir, en genes con información para sintetizar proteínas. El resto del ADN, ¿para qué sirve? ¿Qué hace ahí? No lo sabían. Y, como no lo sabían, decidieron que se trataba de ADN inútil. Que estaba ahí simplemente porque no hacía daño. Que era chatarra. Y así quedó establecido como ortodoxia durante un tiempo vergonzosamente largo. Hasta que, por fin, las nuevas investigaciones comprobaron que esa gran cantidad de ADN no codificante tiene papeles cruciales. (Sigue)

2017-07-05 | Haz un comentario (hay 82)


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1
De: D.E.L Fecha: 2017-07-06 21:35

Muy interesante artículo en 2 partes felicidades!

Con todo tengo un comentario sobre el concepto de ADN basura.
A ver digamos que hay una ameba de tal especie que tiene una secuencia basura, que como has dicho en el artículo es transcrita y traducida inútilmente, es sólo un gasto idiota de aminoácidos y de tiempo de los ribosomas. Bueno esta proteina de mierda al no estar sujeta a selección (o esta es muy débil) en la mayor parte de dichas amebas ya ha mutado y no aparece. Entonces entra una sustancia tóxica en el agua y ... de alguna forma las que tenían la proteína basura consiguen sobrevivir.
PAM! ... Ya no es basura, es la misma secuencia que anteriormente era inútil pero ahora la selección natural la potenciará a cañón.
Que sí que es rebuscado y que la mayor parte del ADN basura no se ya transcribe directamente, pero tal vez haya una pequeña parte que es basura por el ambiente y no by itself ¿no?



2
De: Gualtrapatherion Fecha: 2017-07-13 13:05

Muy bueno y claro, el artículo. Parece que hay ADN basura que tiene alguna función si lo tomamos como un todo, nada que ver con la codificación. Me explico, los anfibios actuales tienen una cantidad de ADN enorme en comparación con el resto de tetrápodos, y se caracterizan por una menor cantidad de células en cada organismo y un mayor tamaño de estas, y todo parece relacionado con su increíblemente baja tasa metabólica, una estrategia de supervivencia que les permite alcanzar altas densidades y sobrevivir en hábitats diminutos con alimento muy escaso.



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De: Pillastre Fecha: 2017-07-18 23:10

Felicidades por el artículo, muy clarificador (yo también estaba confundido con el mito del tesoro en el vertedero). Lo que más me ha soprendido es que este mito lo propaguen prestigiosas revistas como Nature o Science.



4
De: Hexo Fecha: 2017-07-25 18:00

Todo el contenido del ADN en su totalidad es basura.



5
De: El PaleoFreak Fecha: 2017-07-27 10:34

D.E.L: Lo que describes sería una ganancia de función a partir de algo que no tenía función. Ha ocurrido algunas veces. Pero no puede ser la razón de que exista ADN basura porque la selección natural no ve el futuro.

Gualtrapatherion: Si postulas una función en bloque para el ADN basura te remito al test de la cebolla (segunda parte del artículo) ;o) Los anfibios tienen genomas de tamaños muy variados, desde más pequeños que cualquier mamífero hasta las salamandras, que tienen genomas enormes.

Hexo: anímate



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De: Hexo Fecha: 2017-07-31 14:02

Somos residuos. Residuos vivientes y conscientes que medran transformando a otras formas de vida en zurullos marrones sin poder parar. Oh,qué maravilla el ADN.



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De: Hexo Fecha: 2017-07-31 14:14

Residuos del espaciotiempo. Polvo de estrellas, hijos del caos y supervivientes de la destrucción progresiva que nos acompaña en nuestra existencia. Programados para consumir energía con el fin de mantener nuestras funciones vitales y reproducirnos sin parar. Nuestro cuerpo se dedica a transformar tiernos pollitos en cagarros oscuros y pestilentos. Ésta es la obra de Dios.



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De: Hexo Fecha: 2017-07-31 14:15

Por cierto, ya ha salido Rick and Morty s03e02 ;)



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De: spinosaurus Fecha: 2017-08-20 04:11

Como siempre, interesantísimos posts.
también como siempre, las respuestas sueen ser multifactoriales y una combinación de varias posturas, una gran parte de la información genética es el resultado de funciones que ya no operan, o de experimentos que no son operacionales en este omento, pero que están guardados allí, a la expectativa, y que pueden ser utilizados en algún momento ulterior, efectivamente, son basura, que puede ser utilizada en algún momento.



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De: Gualtrapatherion Fecha: 2017-08-30 08:45

Pues sí, parece que la relación entre tamaño del genoma y bajas tasas metábolicas no está tan clara como yo creía. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1095-8312.2003.00191.x/abstract



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